A Polished Rod Transducer for Quick and Easy DynagraphsDynamometer AnalysisIntroduces the Polished Rod Transducer developed to provide an operator with a transducer that could be quickly and safely installed by one technician for the acquisition of dynagraph data. SWPSC, 1998.
A Review of the Non-Dimensional Pumping Parameters and Their Use In Sucker Rod String DesignSucker Rod LiftDiscusses the background and physical meaning of Fo/Skr and No/No', show the nomograph of their inter-relationship and provide recommended limits that may assist in reducing sucker rod system failures.
Acoustic Determination of Bottomhole Pressures In Gas Lift WellsGas Lift WellsInformation about producing and static bottomhole pressures in gas lift wells is useful in designing and operating gas lift installations and measuring over all efficiency.
Acoustic Determination of Producing Bottomhole PressureBottomhole PressuresDiscusses the acoustic determination of producing bottomhole pressure (BHP). Two different techniques are presented for wells that have liquid above the formation and gas flowing upward through the gaseous liquid column.
Acoustic Determination of Pump Intake Pressure in Wells Producing Low-API-Gravity CrudeLow API Gravity CrudeResults are presented from field testing of numerous wells where the actual gradients of gaseous liquid columns were measured in well having a variety of gas flow rates and an oil gravity of 10 degrees API. SPE 110726
Acoustic Foam Depression TestsBottomhole Pressures48th Annual Technical Meeting of the Petroleum Society in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, June 8-11, 1997.
Acoustic Liquid Level Determination of Liquid Loading in Gas WellsGas WellsDiscusses tests showing the redistribution of flowing gas and liquid and allows the construction of the corresponding tubing pressure traverses and the determination of the flowing gas/liquid ratio, liquid fallback volume and flowing BHP. SPE Western Regi
Acoustic Liquid Level Testing of Gas WellsGas WellsSPE Production and Operations Symposium, 4-8 April, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 2009, SPE-120643-MS
Acoustic Producing Bottomhole PressuresBottomhole PressuresThis paper discusses the determination of acoustic producing bottomhole pressures using the "S" curve to correct for the gaseous liquid column. SPE-14254-PA
Acoustic Static Bottomhole PressuresBottomhole PressuresSPE Production Operations Symposium, 10-12 March, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1985, SPE-13810-MS
Acoustic Techniques to Monitor and Troubleshoot Gas-Lift WellsGas Lift WellsSPE Western North American and Rocky Mountain Joint Meeting, 17-18 April, Denver, Colorado, 2014, SPE-169536-MS
Acoustic Velocity for Natural GasAcoustic VelocityAcoustic velocity data for natural gas is useful for determining liquid levels in oil or gas wells and locating obstructions in gas lines.
Advanced Techniques for Acoustic Liquid Level DeterminationAcoustic Fluid LevelsThis paper describes special advanced techniques that can be used to determine the liquid level in wells with these unusual conditions. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX,
Advances in Dynamometer TechnologyDynamometer AnalysisThis paper describes advances in dynamometer technology that allow the operator to better monitor and analyze a sucker rod lift system. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX, 2004
Analysis Before ActionOptimizationExample well data collected on various wells will show opportunities for improvement, more production, more effective operation, and fewer pulling jobs. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX, 2011
Analyzing Well Performance 98OptimizationThis paper addresses the widespread need of oil field operators to continually verify that wells are being produced as close to their optimum capacity as possible. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX 1998
Analyzing Well Performance XVOptimizationImprovements in the acoustic determination of bottomhole pressures for practical needs are presented. Artificial Lift Workshop, Gulf Coast Section, SPE, April 22-24, Houston, 1987
Applications of Acoustic Liquid Level Measurements in Gas WellsAcoustic Fluid LevelsField examples are presented to illustrate the procedures used in acquiring and interpreting acoustic fluid level tests in gas wells. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX, 2006
Artificial Lift Power EfficiencyEfficiencyIllustrates a way to calculate how effective a particular type of lift equipment is in adding power to lift the fluid. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX, 1999.
Beam Pumping to Dewater Horizontal Gas WellsHorizontal WellsDewatering horizontal gas wells is discussed along with pump placement, gas separation, rod protection, analysis, and horizontal well drilling control are discussed. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX, 2011.
Best Method to Balance Torque Loadings on a Pumping Unit GearboxTorqueField case studies of applying three methods to determine gearbox torque, and the pros and cons of each, are presented in this paper. Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, AB, Canada, June 8-10, 2004.
Best Practices for Pressure Transient Tests Using Surface Based MeasurementsPressure Transient TestingThree field cases are presented to illustrate application of the acoustic pressure transient system in different wells and to illustrate best practices that guarantee high quality data. SWPSC, 2008.
Collar Size Separator Performance and AnimationGas SeparatorsThe collar size separator is used to separate liquid from free gas downhole in a well before the liquid is drawn into the pump. SWPSC, 2013.
Determining How Different Plunger Manufacture Features Affect Plunger Fall VelocityPlunger LiftAn operator can produce the well more efficiently if the plunger fall rate, plunger location, and time the plunger takes to fall to the liquid and bottom of tubing are determined.
Development of a High Pressure (5000 psi) Gas Gun for H2S and CO2 ServiceIntrinsically Safe EquipmentIndustry material requirements, main gas gun components, selection of materials resistant to cracking and corrosion are discussed. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX, 2011.
Downhole Diverter Gas SeparatorGas SeparatorsThe Downhole Diverter Gas Separator increases the liquid capacity and gas separation capacity over other downhole gas separators. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX, 2012
Down-Hole Gas Separator Performance Simulation SoftwareGas SeparatorsSimulation software let the user make adjustments to the separator design to optimize for particular well conditions. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX, 2014.
Dual Shot Acoustic TechniqueGas Lift WellsThe Dual Shot Acoustic Technique is used to troubleshoot Gas-lift Wells by looking for pressure communication between tubing and casing. SWPSC, 2018.
Dynamometer Analysis Plots Improve Ability to Troubleshoot and Analyze ProblemsDynamometer AnalysisAnalysis of operational problems can be aided through the ability to graphically compare the various acquired and calculated data values. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX.
DynaPump Field EvaluationEfficiencyThe field performance of a DynaPump system was evaluated on a recent well installation. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX.
Echometer Tech Note: Acoustic Survey AnalysisAcoustic Fluid LevelsDiscusses questions answered by the analysis of data collected from Acoustic Surveys. Echometer, 2000.
Echometer Tech Note: Pump Card ShapesDynamometer AnalysisDiscusses problems that can be identified by recognizing diagnostic Pump Card shapes. Echometer, 2000.
Effect of Buoyancy of Rod String Loads and StressesDynamometer AnalysisDiscusses the true/effective load versus stress argument for display of downhole dynamometer data and analysis of stresses on a rod element. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX.
Effective Loads from Sandia Downhole Dynamometer TestingDynamometer AnalysisThe Electronic Downhole Load Cell (DHLC) was used to acquire downhole dynamometer data on 6 well under SANDIA coordination. Dynamometer data acquired at each rod taper for each well is displayed. This paper discusses the true/effective load argument. SWPS
Equivalent Gas Free Pump Fillage LineDynamometer AnalysisRepresents liquid fillage inside the pump chamber when the traveling valve opens during the down stroke. Adjustments to production are made for gas in solution, slippage, free gas, and compressibility of liquid. SWPSC, 2015.
Evaluation and Performance of Packer-Type Downhole Gas SeparatorsGas SeparatorsDescribes techniques for evaluating effectiveness of downhole gas separators. Describes a separation technique that diverts the formation fluids into the casing annulus above the pump inlet for separation by gravity. Oklahoma City, OK, 2013, SPE-164510-MS
Examples of Forces Not Accounted For By the Wave EquationFrictionThe application of external unaccounted for mechanical forces acting on the rod string impacts measured surface loads, downhole stroke length and plunger velocity, plus the calculated rod loading at the pump. SWPSC, 2018.
Gas Locked Pumps Are Not Gas LockedDynamometer AnalysisDiscusses the definition of a gas locked pump, diagnosing the pump card, and prevention of gas locked conditions. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX, 2014.
Gas Separator Selection and PerformanceGas SeparatorsThe discussion in this document is written to help increase the liquid capacity of downhole gas separators. SWPSC, 2017.
Guidelines for the Proper Application of Critical Velocity CalculationsGas WellsCritical velocity calculations in the form of charts or simple equations are frequently used by field personnel to evaluate a gas well's flowing conditions to determine if the well is experiencing liquid loading problems.
How to Maintain High Producing Efficiency in Sucker Rod Lift OperationsEfficiencyDiscusses how to determine existing system efficiency and analyze the operating conditions of a sucker rod lift system. SPE Production and Operations Symposium, 23-26 March, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 2003. SPE-80924-MS.
Improve Horizontal Rod Pump Operations Utilizing Isolated TailpipeGas SeparatorsThe use of a safely and correctly placed isolated tailpipe used in series with a diverter style of separator can help alleviate challenging production issues in horizontal rod pumped wells. SWPSC, 2017.
Improved Analysis of Acoustic Liquid Level Depth Measurements Using a Dual Channel Analog/Digital Strip Chart RecorderModel MDiscusses operation of the Model M instrument and interpretation of the Model M strip chart.
Improved Downhole Gas SeparatorsGas SeparatorsCollar-sized gas separators, and gas separator placement are discussed. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX, 1998.
Intrinsically Safe Well Analysis InstrumentsIntrinsically Safe EquipmentPresents fundamental aspects of intrinsic safety certification with respect to fluid level instruments. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX, 2007.
Measured Plunger Fall Velocity Used to Calibrate New Fall Velocity Model Plunger LiftA theoretical plunger fall velocity model has been developed. Once the fall velocity for a particular plunger at a specific pressure and temperature is known, the model can be used to predict the fall velocities at other pressures and temperatures.
Measurement and Calculation of Key Events During the Plunger Lift CyclePlunger LiftInformation presented in this paper will assist the operator of gas wells who is suffering from gas flow rates below critical and is using plunger lift to alleviate the corresponding liquid loading problem. SPE 110829.
Modified Foss and Gaul Model Accurately Predicts Plunger Rise VelocityPlunger LiftModified model allows determination of the max shut-in casing pressure before opening the valve and safely bringing the plunger to the surface. SPE Production and Operations Symposium, 4-8 April, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 2009. SPE-120636-MS
Motor Power/Current Measurement for Improving Rod Pump EfficienciesEfficiencyThe development of accurate digital measurement of instantaneous power during a pump stroke has made possible a very quick and detailed analysis of the efficiency of the pumping system.
Optimizing Downhole Packer-Type SeparatorsGas SeparatorsDescribes a technique for evaluating effectiveness of downhole gas separators by comparing the percentage of pump fillage with the percentage of liquid present in the gaseous liquid column. SWPSC, 2013
Optimizing Plunger Lifted Wells by Acoustically Tracing the Plunger FallPlunger LiftFluid level measurements are used to monitor the position of the plunger. By accurately measuring the plunger fall velocity, the minimum shut-in time for the plunger lift installation can be determined. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX.
Over-Travel Can Occur on Both the Upstroke and Down StrokeDynamometer AnalysisThe pump stroke can be longer than the surface stroke when the dynamic motion of the beam pump system adds momentum to the rod string, resulting in the pup stroke length increasing. SWPSC, 2017.
Overview of Beam Pump OperationsOptimizationMethodology for designing to efficiently produce the well by selecting pumping speeds, stroke lengths and plunger diameters are reviewed. SWPSC, Lubbock, TX, 2007.
Plunger Fall Velocity ConsiderationsPlunger LiftData acquired at various wells will be used to correlate the construction features of different types of plungers with their fall velocity.
Plunger Fall Velocity Considerations Presentation SlidesPlunger LiftThis power point presentation accompanies the technical paper written for the SWPSC 2011.
Plunger Lift Analysis, Troubleshooting, and OptimizationPlunger LiftExample data collected from various plunger lifted wells are presented in this paper to show how to identify operational problems such as holes in the tubing, stuck plungers and plungers not getting to bottom. Canadian International Petroleum Conference,
Portable System Takes Guesswork Out of Plunger Lift Analysis and TroubleshootingPlunger LiftIntroduces plunger tracking system used on plunger lifted wells to record the acoustic and pressure signals of the plunger and well at high sampling rates during the entire operating cycle. SWPSC, 2007.
Pressure Transient Digital Data Acquisition and Analysis From Acoustic Echometric Surveys in Pumping WellsPressure Transient TestingDescribes the design and application of a fully digital system for automatic calculation of bottomhole pressure from echometric surveys of the annular fluid level. Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, 18-20 March, Midland, Texas, 1992. SPE-23980
Pressure Transient Testing Using Surface Based MeasurementsPressure Transient TestingCanadian International Petroleum Conference/SPE Gas Technology Symposium, 2008 Joint Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 17-19 June, 2008.
Progress Report #4 on "Fluid Slippage in Down-Hole Rod-Drawn Oil Well Pumps"Pump SlippagePresents the results of the last fluid slippage in downhole rod drawn pump fluid slippage testing completed at the TTU test well. SWPSC, 2007.
Pump Card Analysis Simplified and ImprovedDynamometer AnalysisPlotting a pump card as the effective load on the plunger simplifies analysis, allows checking of measured surface loads and also allows direct and easier interpretation of the actual downhole forces for a more complete and better understanding of the pum
Pump Intake Pressure: Comparison of Values Computed from Acoustic Fluid Level, Pump Dynamometer and Valve Check Measurements.Pump Intake PressureCompares the Pump Intake Pressures calculated from an Acoustic Fluid Level, Dynamometer measurement, and Valve Tests. This paper attempts to point out potential problems and presents detailed guidelines that will assist in improved analysis of the data. S
Pumping Flumping Suck Rod Lifted WellsSucker Rod LiftThe definition of flumping is when a well flows fluid to the surface up the casing annulus while at the same time fluids are pumped by the sucker rod pump up the tubing to the surface.
QRod, a Practical Beam Pumping Design ProgramQRodPresents a computer based tool for predictive rod string design. Outputs include pump size, rod string, surface unit size and motor size for an input depth and production rate. SWPSC, 1994.
Real-Time Display of Sucker Rod Pump Performance From Dynamometer DataDynamometer AnalysisThe operator can see in real time what is happening inside the pump, how much fluid is being displaced, how valves are functioning and the dynamics of the rods that cause oscillation and delays of the plunger motion. SWPSC, 2011.
Reference Load Lines Aid in Analysis of the Downhole Dynamometer Pump CardDynamometer AnalysisDiscusses certain downhole pump problems that can be recognized based on the location of the pump card loads with respect to the three load reference lines. SWPSC, 2009.
Rod String Design Software - Well Simulation Using Sandia's Downhole Load CellDynamometer AnalysisProvides an analysis of the operating conditions for the Sandia wells at various depths with a special downhole diagnostic tool. QRod, SRod, and RodStar are compared. SWPSC, 2015.
Rotaflex Efficiency and BalancingRotaflexRotaFlex balancing can be performed using electrical power measurements. The amount of counterweight that must be added or removed from the counterweight box to balance the unit is calculated directly by using the power measurements. SWPSC.
Solar Powered Rod Pumping System, Where Bigger is Not BetterSucker Rod LiftContinuous Fiberglass Rod pump jack systems designed for low horsepower requirements are beginning to be used for dewatering of gas wells. A solar panel charging system provides power to the DC motor and a bank of batteries are incorporated to provide pow
Sucker Rod Pumping System Design Tools for QRodQRodQRod's objective is to aid in the design and prediction of the performance of Sucker Rod Lifted Wells. A damped wave equation solution is used to accurately predict surface loads, gearbox torque, and pump capacity with minimum inputs. SWPSC, 2013.
The Three Causes of Incomplete Pump Fillage and How to Diagnose Them Correctly from Dynamometer and Fluid Level SurveysDynamometer AnalysisDescribes three causes of incomplete pump fillage, presents several sets of field data, using dynamometer and fluid level records to diagnose, and presents recommendations for possible solutions. SWPSC Lubbock, TX, 2010.
The Use of Polished Rod Velocity and MPRL/PPRL Ratio as an Indicator of Failure FrequencyDynamometer AnalysisThis paper will focus primarily on polished rod parameters including loading and velocities and how proper analysis can provide guidelines for wellbore designs. SWPSC, 2018.
Timer Control of Beam Pump Run Time Reduces Operating ExpenseEfficiencyWells operate more efficiently and at a lower cost with a device that reduces the amount of pumping unit operating time. SWPSC, 1999.
Total Well Management IIEfficiencyTo reduce operating costs, increase oil production and increase net income requires an integrated analysis of the pumping system. Examples of rod pumped wells, ESP, PC, others are presented. SPE
Total Well Management; A Methodology for Maximizing Oil Production and Minimizing Operating CostsEfficiencyA procedure is described that allows an operator to identify those beam pumped wells which are capable of producing more oil and are operating at reduced efficiency. SPE Third Annual Symposium, Calgary, AB, May 23, 1995.
Troubleshoot Rod Pumped Wells Using Tubing Fluid Level ShotsAcoustic Fluid LevelsIf no pump action or no produce to surface, then a recommended practice is to shoot fluid levels down the casing annulus and also down the tubing. SWPSC, 2014.
Tubing Anchors Can Reduce Production Rates and Pump FillageDynamometer AnalysisA gaseous liquid column can form above the tubing anchor and cause high pressure in the gas below the tubing anchor that restricts the liquid and gas flow from the reservoir. URTeC: 1918491, Denver Colorado, USA, August, 2014.
Tubing and Wellhead Pressure Integrity Pressure TestTubing Integrity TestingThis paper describes the use of a Wireless High Speed Pressure Transducer measuring system that can be used to monitor the operation and performance of beam pumping wells. SWPSC, 2016.
Use of Acoustic Surveys for Field Calibration of Surface Readout BHP Gases in ESPAcoustic Fluid LevelsThis paper presents a field method by which it is possible to determine the accuracy of downhole pressure sensors with surface readouts in ESPs. SPE Production Operations Symposium, 9-11 March, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1997. SPE-37452-MS
Use of the Pump Slippage Equation to Design Pump ClearancesPump SlippageTest data collected will be used to show the impact of pump clearance and pumping speed on pump slippage. SWPSC, 2012.
Wireless Motor Power-Current-Voltage Measurements and AnalysisPowerThis paper describes the development of a Wireless Ecectrical Motor Power measuring system that can be used by oil field technicians who may not hold an electrician license to monitor the operation and performance of beam pumping system in conjunction wit
Wireless Simultaneous Acquisition of Dynamometer and Fluid Level Data Facilitates Rod PumpedWell OptimizationWirelessThis paper describes the hardware and user interface, the procedures for installation and acquisition and several examples of field data and well performance analyses for a variety of rod pumping installations. SWPSC, 2011.
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