• Well Analyzer

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of the computerized Well Analyzer versus the Model M strip chart acoustic liquid level instrument?

    The computerized Well Analyzer is a complete well analysis system.

    The Well Analyzer will perform a single shot acoustic liquid level depth measurement, acquire and analyze acoustic pressure transient data obtained at the surface of the well, perform dynamometer tests, and acquire and analyze motor power and current data. Any one or all of these tests can be performed with the Well Analyzer depending upon the sensors selected.

    The Well Analyzer utilizes a notebook computer with analog to digital electronic circuitry to receive data from a variety of sensors. Data about each well is entered into the software. Input well data includes well depth, pressure datum depth, casing size, tubing size, pump size, rod sizes, motor characteristics, pumping unit description and other pertinent data for the test being performed. Acoustic, pressure, dynamometer, and motor power/current data are acquired in the field and processed by the computer software in conjunction with the well data to obtain a complete well analysis. The data can be saved and recalled later. The data can be sent by email and other means for processing on other computers. This software for acquiring and analyzing the data can be downloaded at www.echometer.com for demonstrating its capabilities of recalling and processing field data. The well data is organized into directories using conventional Windows. This powerful user-friendly software aids the operator in data storage, data acquisition and analysis.

    The Well Analyzer can be used to obtain a single shot liquid level measurement on a well. Concurrently, the casing pressure is acquired. This data is processed to determine the liquid level depth, casing annulus gas flow rate, gradient of the gaseous liquid column in the casing annulus, bottomhole pressure, maximum production rate and other useful information about the well.

    The Well Analyzer can be operated in an automatic mode to acquire acoustic pressure transient data. The Well Analyzer is left unattended at the well and the software is programmed to acquire data at the desired rate. The data is processed to determine casing pressure, liquid level depth, bottomhole pressures, gas and liquid flow rates and other pertinent reservoir information. The software processes the data to analyze the well’s characteristics. The pressure transient data can be transferred to other software programs for analysis if desired.

    The Well Analyzer will perform dynamometer tests. It can be used in conjunction with a standard 30k (4”) horseshoe transducer, a 50k (5”) horseshoe transducer utilizing an easy insertion spacer spool, or a polished rod transducer. Conventional analysis includes a surface dynamometer card, pump card, traveling valve test, standing valve test, pump leakage, gearbox torque analysis, beam loading, rod loading and other parameters. All of this data is presented to the operator and can be printed or transferred to other computers for further analysis.

    The Well Analyzer is used with a motor-current sensor to obtain motor loading and to determine whether the pumping unit is rod heavy or counterweight heavy. The current data is acquired with dynamometer data if desired.

    The Well Analyzer is used with a motor-current sensor to obtain motor power and motor current. The analysis includes overall electrical efficiency, pumping unit balance, motor loading, proper motor sizing and electricity cost. The motor-current data is acquired with dynamometer data if desired.

    The advantage of the computerized Well Analyzer is the capability of obtaining a complete well analysis with a minimum of effort and time on the part of the operator. The disadvantage of the Well Analyzer is that the operator needs to be familiar with computer and software operations.  Echometer offers a variety of training and seminars to help familiarize the operator with equipment functions and operations.

     

    The Model M strip chart recorder is a very simple instrument for obtaining liquid level depth in the casing annulus of a well.

    The instrument utilizes a dual-channel recorder so that the collars can be accented on one channel while the liquid level response is accented on a second channel. The Model M can be operated in an automatic mode where the operator simply turns the unit on. A microprocessor automatically selects the proper gain settings for the collar channel as well as the liquid level channel.

    The Model M allows the operator to determine the number of tubing joints from the surface to the liquid level and hence the liquid level depth. In conjunction with the liquid level test, the operator should obtain the casing pressure and the casing pressure buildup rate over a few minutes. This information can be entered into a free software program, AWP, to determine the casing annulus gas flow rate and the bottomhole pressure even with a gaseous liquid column in the casing annulus. The main advantages of the Model M strip chart instrument are simple operation and ease of use. The disadvantage of the Model M is that an operator cannot perform a more complete well analysis that would include dynamometer measurements, motor power-current analysis and unattended pressure transient data acquisition and analysis.

     

    The Model M and Well Analyzer can be operated with a variety of gas guns.

    The most common gas gun used with the Model M is the Compact Gas Gun that is a manually operated gun. The Model M can also be operated with the Remote Fire Gas Gun that allows the operator to operate the Remote Fire Gas Gun from the Model M instrument panel while being located 25 feet from the well. The Well Analyzer is normally operated with the Remote Fire Gas Gun. Upon software or operator command, the Well Analyzer actuates a solenoid in the Remote Fire Gas Gun to generate an acoustic pulse.

  • Why is the Well Analyzer not detecting the acoustic shot when the gas gun acoustic pulse is generated?

    During normal operation, the Well Analyzer is connected to the Remote Fire Gas Gun by two cables. The larger multi-conductor cable supplies power to the pressure transducer and receives electrical signals from the pressure and temperature sensors. In addition, the larger cable supplies 12-volt power to the electrical solenoid for approximately 1 second to actuate the solenoid. The solenoid should actuate and cause a gas valve to open and allow gas to escape from the gas gun volume chamber into the well. If a question exists about the gas gun generating a sharp acoustic pulse, shoot the gas gun into the atmosphere and verify that the gas gun is operating properly. A definite gas pulse explosion should be heard when the gas gun is charged to 500 PSI, then fired into the atmosphere. The gas gun may need to be cleaned and lubricated before the gas gun will generate a good pulse. The internal gas valve must be lubricated for smooth and proper operation.

    The acoustic pulse generated by the gas gun should be released into the well through a full opening 2” conduit for best results. The distance between the gun and the well should be less than 5 feet for optimum results.

    The acoustic pulse should be strong for optimum performance. Normally, the gas gun volume chamber is charged to 200 PSI in excess of well pressure for the initial test. More or less gas pressure can be used after satisfactory results are obtained with either more or less pressure.

    The gas gun microphone detects the shot when the gas pulse “hits” the microphone disks. This large pressure pulse generates a large electrical signal that indicates that the shot pulse has been generated and has started traveling down the well. The signal from the microphone travels through the electrical connector on the gun, through the 90-degree swivel connector on the gun (if present) and through the single conductor cable to the Well Analyzer. The biggest cause of non-detection of the initial shot pulse is non-continuity of the wiring between the microphone and the Well Analyzer. Inspect all electrical fittings and the cable to insure that the wiring is continuous between the microphone and the Well Analyzer. The inner contacts on the cable and other fittings must be in good shape. Most of the contacts are gold plated, but the contacts must be clean for electrical continuity. Clean with alcohol or a good contact cleaner if needed.

    The operator can view the acoustic background noise in the well before the gas gun acoustic pulse is generated to determine liquid level depth. If the electrical connection is proper between the gas gun microphone and the Well Analyzer, a tap on the gas gun will cause a response in the acoustic trace. This is verification that electrical continuity exists between the microphone and the Well Analyzer.

  • TWM

  • I have a Well Analyzer with Plunger Tracking/Pressure Transient capabilities, but TWM is not displaying any of the data. How do I turn on additional modules within the TWM software?

    In order to view pressure transient or plunger tracking data in TWM, it is necessary to enable the corresponding feature module. Follow these steps to ensure pressure transient functions have been enabled.

    1. Start TWM from the desktop.

    2. At the top of the screen, click Help - User Help Level.

    3. From the User Help Level screen, under the TWM Modules section, check the box next to the module desired and click OK.

    PDF Download: Add TWM Modules and Check for Well Analyzer License Capabilities

  • How do I copy TWM files from my Well Analyzer laptop to my desk computer?

    The easiest way to transfer data, especially complete data sets and groups, from one computer to another is to copy the data from the C:\TWM files on your hard drive to a USB flash drive, and then physically transfer the data to the next computer.

     

    Click on the following link for a PDF version that can be printed out. If you have any further questions, please contact Echometer Company for further assistance.

    PDF Download: Copy TWM Files

  • How do I email files from TWM?

    To e-mail files from TWM, use the following steps. A PDF version can be downloaded and printed out by clicking on the link below:

    PDF: E-Mail Files from TWM

  • How is a leaking standing valve displayed on a surface dynamometer card, a pump card and a traveling/standing valve test?

    The surface card is predominately used to display surface polished rod loads for the analysis of pumping unit beam loadings, rod loadings and gearbox loadings. The performance of a downhole leaking standing valve can be best displayed and analyzed on the pump card and on a traveling/standing valve test.

    The surface polished rod loads and position/velocity data are used to calculate a pump card that can be visually inspected to determine standing valve performance. The pump card is a valuable tool to analyze downhole pump performance. When the plunger starts up and the traveling valve and plunger are operating properly, the load on the plunger will increase rapidly to the level labeled “A” in the diagram. During normal pump operation, the load on the plunger increases until the load is sufficient to lift the liquid to the surface. During the upstroke, liquid is lifted to the surface. When the plunger rises in the pump barrel, liquid and/or gas will be drawn into the pump barrel above the standing valve. When the traveling valve starts down, the traveling valve will remain closed until the fluid below the plunger is pressurized to a pressure in excess of the pressure above the plunger, which causes the traveling valve to open. As the fluid below the traveling valve is compressed, the fluid load on the plunger decreases rapidly if the standing valve holds to the level indicated “C” on the diagram. When the plunger is near the top and bottom of the stroke, the plunger speed is lowest. If the standing valve leaks at a moderate rate, the leakage will cause the load on the plunger near the top and the bottom of the stroke to be greater than the load at “C”. Thus, the bottom of the pump card will be rounded (sections B and D) when the standing valve leaks at a moderate rate. A high rate of standing valve leakage in excess of the pump capacity will prevent the pump from producing any liquid. Following is an example of a pump card showing a leaking standing valve along with the corresponding surface card.


    During the standing valve test, the polished rod is stopped on the downstroke. When the plunger enters the liquid in the pump, the traveling valve will be open and the rod string will be partially supported by the liquid in the tubing. If the standing valve does not leak, the load on the polished rod will remain equal to the buoyant rod weight. If the standing valve leaks, the fluid load will be transferred to the traveling valve causing the polished rod load to increase. If the standing valve leaks at a high rate, the standing valve load will be measured to be the buoyant rod weight plus the fluid load as displayed below.


    A standing valve test that indicates leakage invalidates the traveling valve leakage rate test. The traveling valve test is difficult to interpret when the standing valve leaks.


  • How do I create a PDF report in TWM?

    To create a report in TWM, please follow the step by step directions in the PDF document below:

    PDF Download: Print TWM Data Report

  • Gas Guns

  • How does an explosion acoustic pulse differ from an implosion acoustic pulse?

    An acoustic pulse can be generated at the surface of a well by rapidly adding gas to the casing annulus (explosion) or by rapidly removing gas from the casing annulus (implosion). A gas gun volume chamber can be charged to a pressure in excess of the casing pressure, and this gas can be rapidly released into the casing annulus to generate an acoustic pulse that is a compression wave. An acoustic pulse will also be generated when a volume chamber is attached to the casing annulus, and pressurized gas from the casing annulus is allowed to rapidly discharge (implode) into the lower-pressure volume chamber which will cause a negative (rarefaction) pulse in the casing annulus gas. The casing pressure should be 100 PSI or more to get satisfactory results in the implosion mode.

    At low pressures, an external gas supply must be used to pressurize the gas gun volume chamber to a pressure of approximately 100 to 500 PSI in excess of well pressure. Typically, the gas gun volume chambers are 7 (5k psi gas gun) and 10 (compact gas gun) cubic inches in size. Deeper, low-pressure wells require a larger initial acoustic pulse. Larger volume chambers and higher gas pressures in the volume chambers will result in larger liquid level reflections.

    Normally, the casing pressure must be 100 PSI or greater before gas can be released from the casing annulus into a volume chamber to create the initial pressure pulse. The valve should be opened rapidly. This negative or rarefaction pulse will travel through the casing annulus gas and reflect from the collars and liquid level and other anomalies just as the compression pulse that was generated by releasing gas into the casing annulus.

    At higher pressures, the release of gas from the well into the volume chamber or the implosion mode is much preferred because an external gas supply is not required.

    The acoustic pulse speed or velocity generated by a compression wave or a rarefaction (or implosion) wave is the same. The velocity of the acoustic pulse is a function of the composition, temperature and pressure of the casing gas. It is not related to the size of the pulse or whether the pulse is a compression or rarefaction wave.


  • What can be done to reduce maintenance on the Remote Fire Gas Gun?

    The Remote Fire Gas Gun utilizes a solenoid with a small dart valve and a small orifice. The dart valve releases gas from behind a ½ inch moveable piston that allows gas from the gas gun volume chamber to flow into the well. These small moving parts will become clogged and inoperable if sand and debris are blown from the well into the gas gun volume chamber. Debris and sand will prevent the dart valve from properly sealing, and gas will bleed continuously from the gas gun volume chamber into the atmosphere. This requires that the gas gun be disassembled, cleaned and reassembled.

    The gas gun volume chamber should be charged to a pressure in excess of well pressure with CO2 or nitrogen gas to close the gas valve and prevent well gasses and debris from the well being blown into the gas gun volume chamber. After the remote fire gas gun is placed on the well, charge the gas gun volume chamber to a pressure in excess of well pressure before opening the casing valve. This will close the gas valve and prevent debris from being blown into the gas gun mechanism.

    Also, most well gases contain water vapor. This water vapor will be blown into the gas gun volume chamber if the gas valve is not closed by pressure in the volume chamber in excess of the well pressure. This water will cause corrosion and rust that will further contaminate the mechanism.

    For more information, see Preventative Maintenance for the Remote Fire Gas Gun.

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